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          工业通风管道设计常见方式

          来源:http://www.rps-infinia.com 日期:2022-08-15 发布人:jntfgd

          面对工业通风管道设计受施工环境影响等导致通风效率不佳的基本现状,文章以工业环境建设及工业设计化发展为基本出发点,总结了通风管道设计的基本现状和存在的问题,针对具体问题从日常维护与管控、通风天窗和安全性等方面提出了加强通风优化设计的建议,为工业生产和环境工程的可持续发展提供基础保障。
          Facing the basic situation of poor ventilation efficiency caused by the influence of construction environment on the design of industrial ventilation ducts, this paper takes the construction of industrial environment and the professional development of industrial design as the basic starting point, summarizes the basic situation and existing problems of the design of ventilation ducts, Provide basic guarantee for the sustainable development of industrial production and environmental engineering.
          1 工业通风管道设计目的
          (1) design purpose of industrial ventilation pipeline
          因为工业环境具有复杂性,所以在设计工业通风管道时就要结合各项因素,全面地进行考虑,事先做好准备工作,保证通风管道设计的合理性。通风管道设计的目的如下:首先,排除污染物。针对工艺制造中产生的污染物,符合国家卫生标准的污染物可直接通过通风管道进行排除,而具备有害因子的污染物则可以排送到专门的污染物处理处进行净化,等处理达标后再排出。其次,输送。包括具有一定湿度或温度、新鲜的空气等,将其输送到指定区域内,如纺织厂、造纸厂等对温度或湿度有需求的工业区域,以满足工艺制造对环境的需求,同时也创造一种舒适的工作环境。,置换。从通风管道补充工业环境内部空气的不足,维持室内空气压力的平衡,避免外界污染空气进入对工作环境或产品质量造成不良影响?;蛘咄üǚ绻艿蓝允夷谂懦?,及对室外新鲜空气的送入,以达到净化空气或调温的效果。
          Because of the complexity of the industrial environment, it is necessary to consider all factors comprehensively when designing the industrial ventilation duct, and make preparations in advance to ensure the rationality of the ventilation duct design. The purpose of ventilation duct design is as follows: first, remove pollutants. For the pollutants produced in the process manufacturing, the pollutants meeting the national health standards can be directly discharged through the ventilation pipe, while the pollutants with harmful factors can be discharged to the special pollutant treatment place for purification, and then discharged after the treatment meets the standards. Secondly, transportation. It includes certain humidity or temperature, fresh air, etc., which are transported to designated areas, such as textile mills, paper mills and other industrial areas with temperature or humidity requirements, to meet the environmental requirements of process manufacturing and create a comfortable working environment. Finally, displacement. Make up for the shortage of internal air in the industrial environment through the ventilation duct, maintain the balance of indoor air pressure, and avoid the adverse impact of external polluted air on the working environment or product quality. Or the indoor air is discharged through the ventilation pipe and the outdoor fresh air is sent in to achieve the effect of purifying air or regulating temperature.
          2 工业通风管道设计常见方式
          (2) common ways of industrial ventilation pipe design
          随着社会工业化的深入发展,工业类通风管道设计也存在着诸多类别,不同的生产情况,对作业环境需求也各不相同。例如:化工类作业,由于此类作业过程中极易产生带有害因子的气体,因此通风管道常以净化空气等需求为主;而电子类作业,则以调温控湿为主。更终结合其作用的范围、有无动力系统等,可划分为以下五种方式。(1)全面通风。全面通风,细分为稀释、单向流通、均匀流通、置换四种方式。旨在对工业区域的整体面积进行空气流通或置换,将整个空间面积中危害因素较小、浓度较低,或是多余的湿气、热气等稀释、排除至卫生标准限值之下,确??掌慕嗑欢?。(2)局部通风。局部通风,又分为两种:局部送风、局部排风。主要是利用局部的空气流通,达到净化空气,降低危害因素带来不良影响的目的。(3)机械通风。通过动力系统,凭借风机引起的气压,促使空气流通与置换。常见于化工类工业,能够将室内有毒有害污染物从机械通风管道迅速排出到指定处理区域进行分解净化。(4)自然通风。自然通风,顾名思义是一种凭借室外风力形成的风压,以及室内外空气温差所引起的热压下的空气流通,是以自然因素为依托的无动力通风方式。因自然因素存在不稳定性,故被工业单独采用的情况较少,常与其他方式结合来使用。(5)事故通风。事故通风,是工业中非常特殊的一类通风方式,通常是因工业事故而造成的有大量毒害污染物,或有爆炸隐患的气体或蒸汽存在时进行排除或稀释的一种通风方式,旨在保证事故发生时,能够有足够可靠的通风管道来应对通风换气量。实际上,要想实现更全面的通风效果,普遍会结合采用至少两种通风方式。
          With the further development of social industrialization, there are many types of industrial ventilation duct design. Different production conditions have different demands on the working environment. For example, for chemical operations, since gases with harmful factors are easily generated in the process of such operations, the ventilation pipes are often mainly required to purify air; Electronic work is mainly temperature and humidity control. Finally, it can be divided into the following five modes according to the scope of its action and the presence or absence of power system. (1) Full ventilation. Comprehensive ventilation is divided into dilution, one-way flow, uniform flow and replacement. The purpose is to conduct air circulation or replacement on the whole area of the industrial area, dilute and exclude the small hazard factors, low concentration, or excess moisture, hot gas, etc. in the whole space area to the limit value of the health standard, and ensure the cleanliness of the air. (2) Local ventilation. Local ventilation is divided into two types: local air supply and local exhaust. It is mainly to use local air circulation to purify the air and reduce the adverse effects caused by hazardous factors. (3) Mechanical ventilation. Through the power system, the air circulation and replacement are promoted by the air pressure caused by the fan. Commonly used in chemical industry, it can quickly discharge indoor toxic and harmful pollutants from the mechanical ventilation pipe to the designated treatment area for decomposition and purification. (4) Natural ventilation. Natural ventilation, as its name implies, is an air circulation under the wind pressure formed by the outdoor wind force and the thermal pressure caused by the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air. It is a non dynamic ventilation mode based on natural factors. Due to the instability of natural factors, it is rarely used by industry alone and often combined with other methods. (5) Accident ventilation. Accident ventilation is a very special type of ventilation mode in industry. It is usually a ventilation mode to eliminate or dilute a large number of toxic pollutants or gas or steam with explosion potential caused by industrial accidents. It aims to ensure that there are enough reliable ventilation pipes to cope with the ventilation volume in case of accidents. In fact, in order to achieve a more comprehensive ventilation effect, at least two ventilation modes are generally combined.
          3 工业通风管道设计中常见问题
          (3) common problems in industrial ventilation pipeline design
          (1)通风系统划分问题。部分工厂出于私利或图方便,往往统一划分为一个系统,不仅不能达到很好的通风效果,还为工厂作业埋下了安全隐患。当工业区域面积较广,安置多个排送风点时,可设计统一连接的管理系统,将总台风机和多项排风点形成一个整体。而系统的划分则可以结合工业生产性质、流程、时间、运行参数,以及对空气、湿度、温度的需求等因素,相同或类似的可划分为一个系统进行统一管理,而两种易混合且混合后会产生更大毒害性的气体,或易引发火灾、爆炸的气体,就务必不能划分为一个系统,而应设计独立的通风系统[5]。
          (1) Division of ventilation system. Some factories are often divided into one system for self-interest or convenience, which not only fails to achieve good ventilation effect, but also lays hidden dangers for factory operations. When the industrial area is large and multiple exhaust and supply points are arranged, a unified and connected management system can be designed to form a whole with the total fan and multiple exhaust points. The division of the system can be combined with the industrial production nature, process, time, operating parameters, as well as the demand for air, humidity, temperature and other factors. The same or similar can be divided into one system for unified management. However, the two gases that are easy to mix and will produce more toxic gases after mixing, or the gases that are easy to cause fire and explosion, must not be divided into one system, and an independent ventilation system should be designed [5].
          (2)通风管道选材与断面形状问题。管道的材料与断面形状是实现工业管道通风良好效益的根源所在,一旦选错材料或形状,不仅会对工业建筑结构的美观造成破坏,还会达不到通风的效果与目的,甚至会因材料的不过关,在通风管道的使用阶段埋下安全隐患。一方面,要选择正确的管道材料。例如:在熔化炉周边,就要考虑到耐高温的属性,选择耐热耐磨性较高的合金钢。另一方面,选择适合的管道断面的形状也尤为关键。一般而言,圆形更适合具有高速流动要求的管道;而管道断面大时,选择矩形较为合适,对提高空间的利用率也有辅助作用。
          (2) Material selection and section shape of ventilation duct. The material and cross-sectional shape of the pipeline are the root of achieving good ventilation benefits of the industrial pipeline. Once the wrong material or shape is selected, it will not only damage the beauty of the industrial building structure, but also fail to achieve the ventilation effect and purpose, and even bury hidden dangers in the use stage of the ventilation pipeline due to the poor materials. On the one hand, the correct pipe material should be selected. For example, around the melting furnace, alloy steel with high heat resistance and wear resistance should be selected in consideration of its high temperature resistance. On the other hand, it is particularly critical to select the appropriate shape of the pipe section. Generally speaking, circular is more suitable for pipes with high-speed flow requirements; When the pipeline section is large, it is appropriate to select a rectangle, which also plays an auxiliary role in improving the utilization of space.
          (3)通风管道的布局问题。通风管道的布局需要尽可能便捷,保持管道的顺直,同时还可以将用于调节和检测的设备安装到通风管道中,以便对通风管道的运行进行实时、系统的管理。此外,还需要根据实际的通风需求来进行设计,如当输送的气体中含有液体时,就可以将通风管道布局为斜坡状,进而达到消除积液的目的。
          (3) Layout of ventilation ducts. The layout of the ventilation duct needs to be as convenient as possible to keep the duct straight. At the same time, the equipment used for adjustment and detection can be installed in the ventilation duct to facilitate real-time and systematic management of the operation of the ventilation duct. In addition, it also needs to be designed according to the actual ventilation needs. For example, when the transported gas contains liquid, the ventilation duct can be arranged in a slope shape to eliminate the accumulation of liquid.
          (4)通风管道的温度平衡问题。通风管道的温度平衡问题方面是非常重要的一个环节,一旦设计不合理,就极容易造成管道因温度过高或过低,或是长期处于潮湿的环境中而造成管道破裂等问题发生。尤其是由于通风管道在运行过程中会带来热量、冷量、能量的大量消耗,因此对通风管道的控温结构就有着较高的要求,通常包含保温、防潮、?;げ闳惴阑?。保温层是管道的核心,防潮则是为了避免管道材料与水、水蒸气的接触,而?;げ阍蚴嵌员N虏阌敕莱辈慵右员;?,避免其损坏。
          (4) Temperature balance of ventilation duct. The temperature balance of the ventilation pipe is a very important link. Once the design is unreasonable, it is very easy to cause the pipe rupture due to the high or low temperature of the pipe or the long-term humid environment. In particular, because the ventilation pipe will cause a large consumption of heat, cooling capacity and energy during operation, there are high requirements for the temperature control structure of the ventilation pipe, which usually includes three layers of protection: thermal insulation, moisture-proof and protective layer. The insulation layer is the core of the pipeline. The moisture-proof layer is to avoid the contact of the pipeline material with water and steam, while the protective layer is to protect the insulation layer and moisture-proof layer from damage.
          以上就是为大家介绍的有关山东通风管道的详细的介绍,希望对您有所帮助.如果您有什么疑问的话,欢迎联系我们.我们将以的态度,为您提供服务http://www.rps-infinia.com
          The above is the detailed introduction of Shandong ventilation pipeline. I hope it will help you. If you have any questions, please contact us. We will provide you with services with a professional attitude http://www.rps-infinia.com
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